Each lays down certain conditions that must be met in order for the agreement to be exempted from the block exemption. Those conditions may include, for example, conditions relating to the market shares held by the parties and the types of restrictions contained in the agreement. A number of EU block exemptions have been introduced into UK national law, with some minor changes, and will continue to apply after Brexit under UK competition law. The Commission has opened proceedings against companies in the consumer electronics market* The Commission for the Protection of Competition has opened ex officio an investigation into infringements of competition and has carried out enforcement operations on the premises of roaming companies (…) There is no equivalent exemption for anti-competitive agreements. However, in certain circumstances, a dominant undertaking may demonstrate that it has an objective justification for abusive conduct. The defined types of joint production and specialisation agreements are covered by the revision of the specialisation agreement block exemption (SBE).6 Otherwise, the guidelines are included in the guidelines. Specialization is when one party stops or reduces the production of a given product and buys it from the other party (this can be done on the basis of reciprocity if each producer withdraws from a market and sources products from the competitor, or unilaterally). There is no general block exemption for standardisation agreements, although standardisation activities are carried out in some sectors, such as .B. In the past, insurance companies have benefited from an automatic exemption under sectoral block exemptions. However, useful guidelines are provided by the guidelines, which recognise that standardisation agreements can benefit consumers and promote competition, in particular by promoting the development of new and improved products or markets, reducing production and distribution costs, improving and maintaining quality, ensuring interoperability and compatibility.
`horizontal cooperation` means agreements or arrangements between undertakings operating at the same level of the supply chain, i.e. actual (or potential) competitors, for example. B a joint R&D project of competing technology companies or a sales and marketing joint venture between competitors. In contrast, “vertical” agreements are agreements between companies operating at different levels of the supply chain, for example. B a supply contract from a supplier of raw materials to a manufacturer or a distribution agreement between a manufacturer and a retailer4. From a competition law point of view, competitors are particularly important when certain sensitive parameters (e.g. B price and/or production) are coordinated or where cooperation allows parties already with strong market positions to gain, maintain or increase market power (resulting in negative effects on the market in terms of price, production, product quality, product diversity or innovation). . . .