What Are The Five Types of Foundation Piling?

From Sigma Plantfinder Limited 

There are different ways and means of piling and these can generally be categorised in the following way by either the way or method they are installed or the purpose they are designed for.
Different types of machine are used for different types of pile or foundation and the basic information below classifies this simply and provide examples of typical piling machines used for the job.

 1. Mini Piling

Mini piles, also known as micro piles, soil nailing, drifter drilling, and for Geotechnical soil investigation typically range in sizes from 100 mm – 400 mm in diameter. The difference of mini piles from other pile types has more to do with how and where they are installed than just the pile size alone.

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Mini Piling rigs are Versatile Compact Drilling machines capable of operating in restricted access areas on sites used to construct rotary bored piles, micro piles and for Geotechnical Soil Investigation. In locations with restricted access smaller sized piling rigs are often needed to install piles on sites where large piling rigs could not operate. This makes it possible to carry out many commercial and domestic developments in cities and built up areas.

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2. CFA (Continuous Flight Auger) or Screw Piling

CFA drilling or Continuous Flight Auger piling is ideal for alluvial soils and clay and can also be used in sandy or gravel-based ground conditions. The piling rig uses circular hollow galvanised steel pile shafts with one or more steel helices attached, these are screwed into the ground much like a screw is fastened into wood. The CFA piles are filled with concrete then reinforced with a welded steel rebar cage that is pushed down into the unset concrete.

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CFA (Continuous Flight Auger) rigs, (sometimes called Auger Displacement rigs) give you a quick, economical and quiet way of piling, to create deep foundations perfect for high-rise and inner-city construction. This type of pile can minimise the spoil created by installation and in some instances may provide a more sustainable and cost-effective alternative to some other methods of piling. When a pile is bored and the concrete is poured before the augers are extracted it is referred to as a SFA pile (sectional flight auger) or a CFA pile (continuous flight auger).

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3. Bored Piling or Rotary Piling

Rotary Bored Piles or Kelly Drilling bores can be drilled to a designed depth, using an auger, drilling bucket or core barrel, sometimes with Casings which support the pile through any unstable ground, and are reinforced and the concrete poured once the required depth is reached, casting the pile in position. This method of piling is well suited for work in cities, built up areas or areas surrounding existing buildings as the vibration and ground disturbance caused by installation is minimal. These types of piles are suitable for cohesive ground with low water tables.

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Rotary bored piles can support heavy loads, overcome underground obstructions, penetrate ground too hard to bore using a CFA and drill piles. Rotary Bored Piling can offer higher power or torque than some CFA rigs and are able to overcome underground obstructions. Compared with other piling techniques LDP (Large Diameter Piling) can offer larger load capacities and be installed to greater depths. There are two types of Kelly Bar used, a telescopic Kelly Bar and a Friction Kelly Bar.

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4. Vibratory Sheet Piling

Sheet piles are a type of driven pile and are constructed with a series of interlocking steel sheets. Powerful sheet piling rigs allow sheet piles to be driven to significant depths in soil, and even mudstone and sandstone. Vibratory Sheet Piling rig for various applications can come in the form of Silent Piler or crane suspended, telescopic or fixed leader mast Vibratory Sheet Piling rig for various pile shapes and sizes. They can be used to create permanent or temporary retaining walls or a Cofferdam Construction on sites where large excavations are required.

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Sheet piles are a type of driven pile and are constructed with a series of interlocking steel sheets. Powerful sheet piling rigs allow sheet piles to be driven to significant depths in soil, and even mudstone and sandstone. Vibratory Sheet Piling rig for various applications can come in the form of Silent Piler or crane suspended, telescopic or fixed leader mast Vibratory Sheet Piling rig for various pile shapes and sizes. They can be used to create permanent or temporary retaining walls or a Cofferdam Construction on sites where large excavations are required.

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5. Hammer Piling or Driven Piling

Driven piles are driven or hammered into the ground with the use of vibration or impact. There are two types of Hammers, along with the Vibratory Sheet Piling type already mentioned above. These are Hydraulic Hammers and Diesel Hammers. A hydraulic piling machine can be used on a crane suspension to drive steel pipe and precast concrete piles. Hydraulic hammers are more environmentally friendly than older diesel-powered pilling machines.

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With the hammer operated by hydraulics instead of a diesel-powered explosion, these are fast machines, ideal for soft ground conditions in places with low population density, such as oil refineries, power lines and new factory developments. Diesel Powered hammers on the other hand are cheap and simple to operate and maintain and are a proven way to create the desired driven pile.

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This method of piling is well suited for ground with a high water table, for foundations in non-cohesive soils, and for soils that may be contaminated. Using Impact Hammer Rigs for driven piles means piles can be cast in position by using temporary or permanent steel casing. They can also be prepared off site by using pre-cast piles, which can be made from steel, timer, wood or concrete.

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Sigma Plantfinder Ltd have available for sale a vast assortment of Used Bored Piling rigs, crawler drilling rigs, piling machines, used machines for anchors, geothermal and exploration drill rigs, boring rigs, CFA continuous flight auger rigs, diaphragm wall equipment, piling and drilling equipment, jet grouting, micro pile machines and mini piling drill rigs.

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